Selecting Typefaces Shouldn’t be Scary

Computer Screen

Selecting typefaces is often perceived as being in the territory of graphic designers. But these days, almost everyone makes typeface choices, whether it is to use the default typeface on Google docs (not choosing is a choice), or select a font for a Keynote presentation.

Think about getting ready for work in the morning. What you do with your hair, the clothes you pick — what’s going on in your mind is not too different from what goes on in a designer’s mind while making a typeface decision.

When dressing up for an important meeting, you might select neutral colors and a blazer with high-quality material.

Similarly, if your slide presentation is for a corporate client you would choose a more formal typeface than if you were making a birthday invitation.

All of that is fairly intuitive but many people don’t feel confident choosing type, simply because of the mindset of “I’m not a designer.”

But everyone has basic visual common sense that they can enhance and develop with knowledge and practice. You don’t need to be in the design profession to develop a keen sense of design.

1. Be clear on purpose.

Be clear about what you are trying to achieve, before worrying about typeface choice.

You may not have a formal project brief but before you go on, make sure you are clear about these details at least:

  • The purpose of the piece
  • Objective of the piece
  • Audience

2. Eliminate the clutter

There are a gazillion typefaces out there, so don’t be overwhelmed thinking you have millions of choices. You really only have a few.

A lot of typefaces are free but low quality. A lot of good typefaces come with a price tag, but for your project may not be worth paying for (simply because you can get perfectly good ones with your Mac.

3. Know your choices

Fortunately there are many typefaces already on your computer and are free to use for personal and commercial purposes.

The fonts that come with your Mac, according to Apple, may be used for commercial purposes.

‘The fonts made available in Font Book may be used to create, display and print content on OS X running on a Mac. Such content may be used for either personal or commercial purposes. Users are, however, prohibited from copying and distributing the electronic font files made available in Font Book for use on non-Apple hardware.’

Here are a few of them:

Sans Serif fonts

Sans Serif fonts

Serif fonts

Serif Fonts

Others

Others

You can create perfectly functional and beautiful work with these. You don’t need any more than what is available on a Mac, unless you are doing a graphically adventurous design, or doing branding work requiring custom type or the exploration of other typefaces.

And how you use the fonts — your use of hierarchy and spacing — are just as important as choosing the fonts that work for your project.

4. Use the right typeface for the medium

Many serif typefaces are iterations of classic typefaces from the metal type era, designed specifically for old-school machine printing.

During the low-resolution screen era, Georgia was created for Microsoft by Matthew Carter. They envisioned an elegant font that would be legible in the screens of the day (which were low resolution by comparison to today). After that, the gorgeous Georgia became a standard web font.

You may want to think twice about using Baskerville or Times New Roman for screen presentations. The serifs are so thin, they disappear at certain screen resolutions or type sizes.

5. Know the relevant factors

Aesthetics / look and feel

Similar to creating your own personal look and feel, your typeface contributes a lot to the general appearance and vibe of your work. Do you want it to look classic and credible? Modern and exciting? Straightforward, no nonsense?

Just as people with a keen fashion sense and browse clothing sites in their free time are highly aware of trends, aesthetic sense for type is developed by exercising and exposing your eye — regularly looking at good design work, exploring and experimenting with what is out there.

Design culture

Why do classic fonts work so well as body text? Because our eyes are accustomed to them. We’ve been reading text in serif fonts since childhood. Newspaper and magazine body text is often in serif.

Type taste and reading comfort is relative and changing.

In the 1600s, because normal handwriting was much like today’s calligraphy, people in those days found paragraphs and pages of calligraphic writing easy to read. Whereas today, we can only stand reading them in short bursts — as headlines or titles for example.

The first book was in a typeface that resembled handwriting; it would be considered headachey today but back then it was perfectly acceptable.

This shows the importance of being sensitive to the culture of the time. And what your audience is comfortable with reading.

Legibility

As an example, I recently did a layout for a Directors’ report for an NGO/ ministry.

(I can’t show the images here as it is not being circulated online at the moment.)

It was 8 pp, text heavy. I used a mix of Avenir (section headings) and Georgia — body text and cover title. Type size 10 because I knew a lot of seniors would be reading it.

Tex on most pages appeared in 2 columns for shorter line lengths of type.

I didn’t have to spend anything on type licenses (it was a pro bono project). I got a lot of great feedback, including a 70+ year old saying “it’s so easy to read!”

You may tend to worry a lot about whether your work looks good, but remember, the priority is that it works well.

Available characters or family

Some fonts—display types or fun fonts—only have one type style such as Regular, and so if you plan to use italics or small caps, better check if the font is capable of that.

Another example is a John Robert Powers book I designed over 10 years ago. Readers: 20s and 30s. Typeface selected: Minion. Why: It has all the type styles needed, and has small caps. Classic but modern. Great for graphic text, also easy to read for body text for a pocket-sized book.

Personality

Typeface personality is created by unique details in the typeface. For example, American Typewriter and its curly, rounded ends give it a certain playful personality. It’s something you probably won’t use for an office contract.

Try to get a sense of the personality of the fonts you are choosing from. Googling their history will also help you understand their story and use fonts wisely.

Relationships

Font pairing is not necessary for basic office paperwork but for a powerpoint or keynote slide, for example, you can pair two different fonts to create more visual interest.

Again, it’s much like pairing clothes, creating visual interest. The basic principle is if you will pair two typefaces, they shouldn’t be too similar, otherwise what’s the point.

Arial and Helvetica in the same document don’t make sense (most people won’t even notice the difference). A serif and sans-serif work well as a pair, as you will see in many websites.

Experiment regularly and keep learning

When I was new to cooking, I would follow recipes to the letter. If the recipe said I need capers, I would buy a bottle of capers, thinking the recipe won’t work without it.

But after gaining experience cooking from recipes, I began to understand what certain ingredients would contribute to overall flavor. I learned how to substitute when recommended ingredients were unavailable (or so expensive, like capers).

I began to rely less and less on recipes.

So hopefully, you will rely less and less on tips and gain newfound confidence as you develop your sense of type.

Typeface Anatomy Simplified

IMG_2886

“ I love learning but I hate studying.” – my former boss

I echo his sentiment. Especially where typefaces are concerned.

I love learning—learning by doing. Drawing letters. Experimenting with font software.

But I, ashamedly, I don’t know the parts of the letters by heart. I didn’t study that part hard enough. I didn’t memorise them like a good student of type would.

So instead, I thought I’d learn them best the way I learn most things—by doodling.

Drawing or doodling helps me get to know something better and cement the learning in my mind. Drawing something makes you more familiar with it.

When I study typefaces, reading books are not as helpful as me drawing Helvetica, Baskerville, Rockwell on paper. Staring, observing, analysing, doodling type.  

So here are my educational doodles. Hopefully they will help you too.

Level 1: Easy/common words

  • Ascender (the part of a letter that goes above the x-height)
  • Descender (the part of the letter that goes below the baseline)
  • Crossbar
  • Stem
  • Diagonals

1

Level 2: Body part-sounding words

  • Spine
  • Tail
  • Shoulder
  • Arm
  • Leg
  • Throat
  • Ear
  • Hairline
  • Waist
  • Throat
  • Upper lobe
  • Lower lobe
  • Eye

2

Level 3: Advanced super hyper typophile words

  • Aperture
  • Counter
  • Spur
  • Link
  • Loop
  • Hook
  • Sheared terminal

3

*Most of the above terms are from Karen Cheng’s book “Designing Type,” in which she clarifies that “there is no official nomenclature for the unique structural features of type.” But “type designers, do in general use the specialized terms” she shared in the book.

Why learn names of the parts of letters?

 

They help you find the right words when discussing type

Instead of saying – “the thin thingie of the “o” is making this typeface hard to read in small sizes.” . You can say, “This typeface won’t work well in small formats because the hairline is almost invisible”

“We need to increase the leading because the descenders are hitting the ascenders on the next line.”

“Can you change it to a typeface with heavier stems?”

And when critiquing type / discussing type design

“Do you think the crossbar of the t is a little too wide?”

“The spine of the S is a little too thick.”

“The shoulder of the lowercase n could use a little more weight.”
And hopefully the more we use these words, the more they will be cemented into our vocabulary. And we won’t need the word thingie anymore.

Marketing Principles Every Creative Needs to Know

Marketing is an unavoidable part of life—we sometimes love it (when we love the products being marketed), and many times we hate it (all those annoying emails! unsubscribe!). But knowing and applying marketing principles can transform a creative career.

Clients and creatives don’t naturally see eye to eye. But when we make the effort to understand our clients (and customers), we’re able to make every project meaningful for both parties.

Marketing is about adding value to one’s customer. And ironically, when you think less about yourself and, make it more about your client and their audience, it becomes a win-win.

1. What your client values is the most important thing

Knowing what your client needs the most or values the most from the project is the most important thing. Whether it’s to maximize the budget, or simply to get a poster printed on time—that is the thing they’d do anything for. That’s what they are happy to pay for.

When you know what’s at stake for them, and what they need to be successful, you’ll be able to prioritize tasks with more wisdom and make better decisions throughout the project.

I had a client last year who needed a brochure for an event that was happening in 2 weeks. (Don’t ask me how I got into such a sticky situation).

So the client needed the brochure designed and ready for print in about a week and a half. Because it was for an event, the deadline date was non-negotiable. That was the most important thing in this situation.

She produced the content immediately and wanted the cover professionally shot. Eventually she had to sacrifice that because the photoshoot was not feasible, time-wise. In the same spirit, in honour of the deadline, I made sacrifices as well. As soon as she emailed me with revisions, I worked on them right away. (Even though 1-2 days are the normal turnaround time).

And after final artwork was done, and I was out, travelling, she called me from the printer asking me to change something, I did the revisions right away, in a moving car. Because I knew what was the most important thing, I could decide what was worth the sacrifice. The result: an ecstatic client who made sure I was fully paid within days after project completion.

As a side note, you might be thinking (and rightly so) that it’s a toxic project to get into—yes, I normally may not have said yes to such a rollercoaster project, but in contrast to other projects that drag on forever, an occassional sprint is actually quite refreshing. And being able to help someone with a task that most people would say no to—there was some kind of thrill in that too.

2. Audience insights are key to communication that works

Market research is everything. Marketing revolves around the target market—their needs, where they are, how to reach them. The 4 Ps of Marketing, “product, price, place, promotion,” are all in service of the market who will be attracted to the product, pay for it, and use it.

The more you know your target audience, the more on-point your communication will be.

And it doesn’t have to be major research work. Short interviews and conversations with the audience are even better when the right questions are being asked.

With market research familiarity, you will be able to review a strategy as to whether it’s sound. How many times have creatives been misdirected and creative brilliance wasted because of a wrong understanding of the audience? What’s worse is that the business suffers and ends up wasting resources.

Resources are often wasted by working based on assumptions. If you are knowledgeable in marketing processes, you’ll be able to see which statements are assumptions, and ask for verification. By being able to confirm that data is verified, you’ll be able to work confidently, and make your work — and the entire team’s and client’s work — worthwhile.

3. The metrics that matter to the client should matter to you too

Marketers spend a lot of time measuring and analyzing data. But before that, they decide what are the metrics that matter.

What matters is what is going meet the marketing objectives.

Marketing objectives are different from communication objectives. Marketing objectives are directly related to sales targets. Being aware of targets gives you the big picture of what’s at stake in a campaign. You’ll be able to work well with the marketing team on aligning the communications strategy with the marketing strategy. You also get to see exactly where the creative work sits in the campaign and that will give you a better understanding of what you need to do.

Knowing the potential ROI and success metrics of the items you are working on will help you prioritize. We creatives make the mistake of spending time on which parts of the project are fun and can showcase our brilliance. But prioritizing what is most important to the marketing objectives are in the best interest of the client.

Being involved in various stages of the marketing campaign gives you a taste of how relevant your communication is.

Creatives are normally spared from having to worry about ROI, audience engagement statistics, all those numbers, but that is not necessarily a good thing. Creatives (graphic designers, copywriters) are rigorously trained in communication strategy and execution. Adding marketing to that equation adds tremendous value in terms of collaborating with the client, seeing eye-to-eye on their concerns, understanding them better, and being able to formulate solutions that work from both a communication and business standpoint.

4. At the end of the day, your job is really to help your clients sell

The more you can help your clients sell, the more value you are bringing to their business, a wise coach once advised me.

Focus on increasing the value of your client.

The more you can help your clients sell, the more value you are bringing to their business.

“A copywriter is a salesman, not an artist,” says Robert Bly in The Copywriter’s Handbook

Content marketing has taught me essential principles of communicating to sell, not to impress. Studying the art and science of content marketing, the logic behind keywords, and being able to track everything, really hones your skills as a communicator. Because of the instant feedback you get on your posts’ performance, you can easily assess and tweak, make improvements as you successfully contribute to the growth of your client’s audience. And knowing content marketing principles will teach you to effectively direct creative teams in executing on-strategy.

Same thing for designers—a lot of what designers do has a marketing function—selling an idea, attracting eyeballs, telling a story, which all can lead to a sale.

Creatives value things like aesthetics, taste. We see subtleties that others don’t. We have a sense of pride over the colors we choose, the typefaces we use. The beauty of our work. That’s our turf. But pride that should not get in the way, or in front of, doing effective communication work.

Design Quote Steve Jobs.jpg

5. Relationships trump everything else

At the end of the day, marketing is just a job. People are more important than profit. But strangely, when you’re all about people, that’s when projects come. That’s what makes people want to work with you.

It’s not about you

Compare a marketing person’s CV with a design person’s portfolio—a marketing person’s pride and joy are the brands they helped transform—the results.

A designer’s portfolio (most of the time) highlights visuals. Cool graphics. Jaw-droppingly gorgeous, envy-inducing work. But we can learn from marketers on how to see and tell the full story.

Make it more about the client, their story, the amazing results you helped achieve for them. That will increase the value of your services.

Make sure that clients see your work as an investment, not an expense.

When you’ve succeeded at adding value to your client—increasing their potential to sell.—then you have added value to your own work and to yourself as a creative as well.

 

 

How to Find Time for Your Side Projects

Most creatives have at least one side project they’re working on—a poetry collection perhaps, a giant tapestry, or an intricate painting. Maybe a book, an ebook, or a short film. If you’re reading this, chances are you have one.

Perhaps you were so pumped about it at first. Then life got in the way. Regular overtime at work. House repairs. Taxes. Business issues. Family emergencies. Freelance projects. All kinds of interruptions and delays. And each day, once you finished all your tasks, you had no time or energy left for your beloved project.

So now your hair turns gray, and you wistfully say (in a soft shaky voice as your hand vibrates while you lift a finger to your temple), “what was that thing I started creating long ago?”

One type of project I often had trouble finding time is typeface design, because typefaces can take a really long time to complete.

A typeface can take from 7 days to 7 years to design, depending on complexity.

So how do we find the time to do things we love?

I’ve learned that there are three things crucial to completing a side project:

  1. Ability to manage your time
  2. How badly you want to complete it
  3. Ability to focus

Let’s skim through some popular time management techniques, then I’ll share what helped me get committed and focused on type design work.

Time Management Approaches

 

  1. Decluttering

 

Things that clutter our lives can become a hurdle if we’re not careful, and they actually keep us from reaching our goals and completing meaningful projects.

It’s surprising how much in our lives is unnecessary. For example:

  • Social media accounts you don’t need
  • Credit cards you don’t need
  • Boxes of old stuff (mental clutter)
  • Obligatory meetings

Think of them as bags that you carry with you wherever you go. If you let go of them, you can move with more ease and freedom.

Removing unnecessary things in our lives does wonders.

  1. Prioritizing

Prioritizing involves planning your calendar with a hierarchy—distinguishing clearly what’s important and what’s not. And managing the urgent tasks so they don’t take over your whole day.

You may be familiar with the Eisenhower matrix, popularized by Stephen Covey:

Eisenhower MatrixIf you want something done, you need to assign importance to it.

But it’s often not that simple. We’re caught in a hamster wheel of the pursuit of a balanced life:

Diagram

Do you ever feel like you need to choose only 3 of these?

Oftentimes it is only possible to achieve 3 of the above in a day.

Prioritizing is the key, and spreading activities across the week, not pushing yourself to do everything every day.

  1. Creative Techniques

Use what you know about yourself and get creative with your self-motivational techniques.

If your energy is highest in the morning, block out out morning time to work on your project.

Or set up all your gear or working materials the night before and put them next to your bed so once you wake up, you find yourself stimulated to get started.

Binge-watch tutorial videos related to your project.

Make it fun and set up reward systems. For example, prepare some amazing looking food that you only get to eat after you accomplish your planned project task for the day.


 

Time management skills alone are not enough. And it does take time, practice, and discipline to find your groove and show up consistently.

Despite how busy you get, there is always time for what you love.

Seal the deal

So here’s what you need to do to seal the deal.

 

  1. Decide that you want it

 

One of our biggest stumbling blocks in getting some things done is we’re not sure we want to in the first place. Count the cost: know the time and resources you need and ask yourself if you still want to do it.

Am I really committed to finishing this short film? Is it worth my time?

For me, even in my busiest days as a full-time employee (when I was one), I still found time after work and on weekends to learn and practice type design and lettering, and produce self-funded print projects.

  1. Decide you will stick with it in the long run

Committing to something long-term changes your whole demeanor about it. Deciding that I wanted to do type design and pursue similar projects for at least the next decade—it is actually quite relaxing. It switched my mindset from scarcity of time to abundance of time.

I feel less time pressure and more confident that I will finish things.

Long-term commitment can change your perspective from “time is against me” to “time is on my side”.

  1. Divide projects into phases and chunks

Planning your project tasks becomes so much easier when #1 and #2 are achieved. So once that was settled for me, I made sure I spent at least 20 minutes every day on my type projects—even just tiny tasks—to keep my momentum going.

But at least once a week, usually Saturday, I dedicate a big chunk of time to it, to make sure I can get into deep work and get a substantial amount of work done.

One of my inspirations is Erik Marinovich, Jessica Hische’s studio partner at Title Case. He is now a full-time letterer, but before he got to do that, he had a day job unrelated to lettering. Every evening at 6PM as the work day ended, he would joyfully proclaim, “Lettering time!” and then spend the whole night doing his lettering work.

There are few things that you can give time to every day. And a project or pursuit that’s important to you should be one of them.

  1. Declutter constantly

Decluttering is not a one-time, spring-cleaning thing. Everyday I’m making decisions about what not to do; what to cut out of my schedule, to make room for the important.

Decluttering is about knowing what’s important and what is clutter. It keeps stuff from overcrowding your life or eating up brain space.

Letting go of things frees up energy and space in your life and in your mind and gives you a refreshed ability to focus.

“Deciding what not to do is as important as deciding what to do.” – Steve Jobs

Here’s a quote I read years ago from The Rule of Four, that has always inspired me when trying to finish long projects.

Screen Shot 2019-04-27 at 9.05.32 AM

Just remember these three things:

 

  • Manage time well

 

  • Commit to it—want it baaaad
  • Focus

 

 

There you go. Now make it happen!

 

A Friendly Introduction to Font Licenses

Typefaces are like clothes. Clothing for your text. They set the appearance of words and influence their effect on the reader.

But shopping for typefaces is very different from shopping for actual clothes, which you get to own and wear.

To use a typeface, you need to download and/or purchase the font—which is in the form of a file or set of files. But the ownership of these files is not exactly yours.

When you purchase a font, what you are purchasing is the license to use it. Font files, technically, are software. When you buy a font, you get the file, but what you pay for is the right to use it.

Screen Shot 2019-04-20 at 1.11.38 PM.png

How about free fonts?

Free fonts are available from sites such as Dafont.com, Google Fonts, Font Squirrel, Urban Fonts, 1001 Free Fonts, Abstract Fonts, and The League of Movable Type.

Marketplaces like Design Cuts, Envato, and Creative Market occasionally share fonts as free downloads.

But just because these fonts are labeled as free, it doesn’t mean you can use them for anything you please.

 

How free is free?

That is where designers need to go into lawyer mode and actually read the licenses.

Font licensing can get complicated, but as far as free fonts go, they are usually, by default, free for personal use. You just need to find out whether they are ok for commercial use as well.

Some examples:

Dafont

Their license is simple (usually a txt file that comes with your download) and would normally tell you if it’s free for personal or commercial use or both.

Free for Personal Use – for projects that have no commercial value

Free for Commercial Use – for projects that earn

In both cases you are allowed to use the font files, but not to modify them in any way.

Some font designers will share a limited version or a demo version of their typeface available for free on dafont, as part of a marketing strategy for publicity. The full or Pro version will be available for purchase in MyFonts or Creative Market.

The League of Movable Type

As for The League of Moveable Type, “All our fonts are free to use however and wherever you need, to build on and learn from. We survive on donations, membership, and education.” Thank you, League!

Google Fonts

Google Fonts are created for web-based use. Their FAQ states that “All fonts are released under open source licenses. You can use them in any non-commercial or commercial project.”

“Can they be used on any web page,” you ask? Google Fonts says:

“Yes. The open source fonts in the Google Fonts catalog are published under licenses that allow you to use them on any website, whether it’s commercial or personal.

Search queries may surface results from external foundries, who may or may not use open source licenses.”

Open-source, by definition, is free for all and can presumably used on print projects too. Although I have not tested them out for that purpose before, I have not yet seen any restrictions on using them for print.

That being said, Google fonts still require discernment – they are not made by Google, but by typeface designers contributing to Google.

As with most free fonts, some of them were made very quickly, and may not be perfect in terms of spacing and design consistency.

In Practical Typography, Matthew Butterick cautions against using Google Fonts:

“measured by professional standards, the average Google Font is just awful. Some are better than others, but nearly all fall prey to at least one fatal flaw of being ugly, incomplete, poorly drawn, poorly spaced, amateurish, or just unusable.”

So those are just the free fonts. Now let’s get to the paid ones.

Paid Fonts & Their Various Licensing Laws

Before you pay for a font, you’ll want to know what you can use it for. Especially if you are using it for a big brand that will gain a lot of publicity.

You don’t want to find yourself in a situation such as that of Joy Mangano, who is allegedly using Moshik Nadav’s Paris typeface without paying for the corresponding license, resulting in an angry type designer and some very bad publicity.

There are generally two kinds of font licenses for paid typefaces: the simple, and the complicated

Simple – Those by individual type designers selling on creative marketplaces

Complicated – Licenses by font foundries and larger font companies

By complicated, I mean very detailed, and something you need to go into lawyer mode to understand, or ask a lawyer to help you read through and interpret.

The Simple Licenses

Adobe Fonts on Creative Cloud

(formerly known as Typekit)

The assumption is that we can use any typeface on Creative Cloud for any purpose we want. That is correct in the general sense, but it is only usable by you. You can’t share the font with a developer or client. No credit is required for Adobe. You can use it for books and ebooks.

For example, with packaging files in InDesign (a function of InDesign that puts all your publication layout files such as images and fonts into a single folder for production use), Adobe Fonts does not allow the font files to be sent to a printer. To use the files with live fonts, they will need to use their own license. The workaround is for you to outline the fonts before packaging the file, or send them as a PDF. According to Adobe, fonts that are embedded in a PDF, or rasterized fonts, are ok to keep and distribute in that form.

But what happens if you cancel your Creative Cloud subscription? As for working files, you will of course need a license to keep using them (otherwise you won’t even be able to see them). As long as you are paying the hefty monthly fee for the Creative Cloud suite, you are a licensed Adobe Fonts user.

You can read more on that here: https://helpx.adobe.com/fonts/using/font-licensing.html

Mac System Fonts

The fonts that come with your computer, according to Apple, may be used for commercial purposes.

‘The fonts made available in Font Book may be used to create, display and print content on OS X running on a Mac. Such content may be used for either personal or commercial purposes. Users are, however, prohibited from copying and distributing the electronic font files made available in Font Book for use on non-Apple hardware.’

Creative Resource Webshops

For sites such as Creative Market and Design Cuts, fonts are purchased by freelancers and small companies, and big companies with small budgets.

Creative Market fonts are made by individual type designers. Their license states that “Items purchased under the Standard License may be used to create End Products for Sale where lifetime sales of the End Product for Sale do not exceed 500 units. Items purchased under the Extended License may be used to create End Products for Sale that may be sold an unlimited number of times.”

This allows designers to receive fair compensation when their typeface participates in making a product attractive and thus profitable.

Creative market distinguishes between Personal use and Commercial Work:

Personal Use:

Personal Use is defined as using purchased Items in a manner that has no potential monetary gain. Personal Use projects cannot be related to any business, non-profit, or other organization of any kind. All purchased Items may be used in an unlimited number of Personal Use Projects. Examples of Personal Use include using a graphic to create t-shirts for a family reunion, using a template to create a birthday card that you send in celebration of a friend’s special day, using a photo in a piece of wall art that you create for family member as a gift (no money changes hands), etc.

Commercial Work:

We define Commercial Work to be any work done that is not for Personal Use. Synonymous terms include Contracted Work and Client Work.

Design cuts is similar to Creative Market in principle.

For small projects or side projects these types of licenses won’t get you into trouble. I suggest keeping track of which fonts came from where. I recently decluttered my font folder, essentially started over so I know where things are and what fonts I have the right to use commercially.

The Complicated Licenses

Okay. Here’s where licenses start to get excruciatingly specific: when licensing fonts with type foundries.

A foundry was originally a type factory—a place where metal type was cast. Fonts were not pixels, but actual blocks of metal. Today, fonts are digitally created, but we still call the companies that make them font foundries (which I find really cool). We also continue to use old-school terminology such as “uppercase” and “lowercase,” which refer to actual cases in which the metal type was stored and organized, in the olden days.

Type foundries have very detailed licensing agreements. This is where you will start hearing the fancy term EULA (End User License Agreement). They usually cater to large clients and have legal departments. If you are a individual freelancer, it’s very overwhelming to be at this stage. Licenses are complicated because they’re not meant for small projects. These are used by big brands that make millions from one project. And the typefaces are created by the big guns, the pros.

Monotype is one of the biggest players in the industry (if not the biggest—they are behind MyFonts and Fontshop) and their font licensing guide indicates that you need to license for specific applications (Desktop, Mobile, Web, ePub, Products, Server).

Side note: Monotype also has a paid app called fontbook that has a gazillion typefaces to drool over. It allows you to view by Foundry, Designer, Year, Usage, or Class. It’s a great place to hunt for fonts, (or bedtime surfing for the typographically obsessed graphic designer) If you find something you like, you can visit the Foundry or Designer’s website and buy from there (there’s no direct buy button since it’s not a sales tool) or check if it’s available on Adobe Fonts or a free website.

Other big players are Hoefler & Co. Linotype, and Emigre. Here are links to their very detailed licensing agreements and guides:

MONOTYPE https://www.monotype.com/fonts/licensing-101/

LINOTYPE https://www.linotype.com/25/font-licensing.html

EMIGRE https://www.emigre.com/License

HOEFLER AND CO https://www.typography.com/home/eula.php

FRERE JONES https://frerejones.com/licensing/desktop

TYPOFONDERIE https://typofonderie.com/licensing/ https://typofonderie.com/licensing/end-user-license-agreement/

As an example of just how detailed these are, here’s a snippet from Emigre’s licensing specs:

Basic License – For font users with up to five CPUs at one location.  

Multi-CPU License – For font users with more than five CPUs, or more than one location.

Service Bureau License – For any font user that sends fonts off-site for output.  

World-Wide License – For large companies with many locations.

Font Embedding License – Required, in addition to the desktop license, if fonts are embedded into apps, eBooks, websites, etc.

There are two types of embedding licenses:

1 Non-Editable Embedding

Non-Editable, or “Static” font embedding is for ebooks apps, games, etc. with static text and where the third party or end user is NOT allowed to enter or edit text with fonts.

Web Fonts License – For font use in web pages with the CSS @font-face rule.  

Mobile App License – For embedding fonts in apps on approved platforms, such as Android, iPhone and iPad.  

EBook License – For embedding fonts in apps on approved platforms, such as Android, iPhone and iPad.  

Game License – For embedding fonts in standalone game or other applications, compiled in proprietary format, run on user’s device.

2 Editable Embedding

Editable or “Dynamic” font embedding is for applications and websites that feature templates for greeting cards, stationery, business cards, photo albums, games, etc. where the third party or end user IS allowed to enter or edit text with the font.

Editable embedding licenses, such as games, online greeting cards, and online applications, editable documents, dynamic Apps, and kiosks are quoted on an individual basis.

Apart from these highly specific EULAs, they also offer the possibility of a custom license.

Respecting the EULAs

Many of us may embrace a Robin Hood mentality when it comes to type. Meaning we’ll readily use expensive typefaces for small projects without licensing them. (Steal from the rich to give to the poor). Many designers demand that all fonts must be free or suggest that paid fonts are a form of greed. But this shouldn’t be the case.

In Typofonderie’s website there is a paragraph that highlights why we need to respect the typeface profession and the licensing agreements they put forth.

Typofonderie says:

It is a full-time job which requires lots of time, patience, love and humility.

This work is neither a hobby nor a charity business, far away from it.

Copying and/or stealing licenses and the non-respect of this work constitute a sad reality that unfortunately contributes to the disappearance of quality craftsmanship to the profit of the “quick and dirty”! No need to have a strong imagination to guess what would happen if your clients, your company, your boss or yourself act in an illegal matter: by deciding not to pay for your work or just because an internal customer department (communication, marketing, editing,…) or external (design, communication, advertising agencies, etc.) have failed to acquire rights on the licenses! We estimate that more than half of the Typofonderie fonts in use are not licensed at all.

We do not solely live with love and fresh water. Our work needs to be paid to create more, design more innovative typefaces, still build quality and differentiation. As well, you need to differentiate yourself from your competitors and communicate with legibility, subtlety and harmony.

Totally agree. Being mindful of type licenses shows our respect for the type creators, who make design so easy for us. Because they put in the hours to make the typeface as usable and as perfect as possible. 


 

More questions?

Here are some questions I’m often asked, by people who mistake me for a type expert.

What if I am using a typeface for a brand logo?

You will definitely need the commercial license. Read through the license text (which is usually on the foundry or company’s website) to make sure that it’s allowed for logo use.

Is a license per computer or per person?

Unless specified otherwise, a font with a simple license is for one seat. One seat is for one computer. You’ll need an additional seat if you want to install it in another computer.

Type foundries have certain license for companies that allow for multiple seats, and even custom licenses to cater to the company’s or client’s requirements.

Can I modify a typeface in font software and use it?

This is common practice among designers, but most typeface licenses do not allow this, as it changes the font design and can compromise its integrity.

I suppose it can be done merely for learning purposes, in secret, then all evidence destroyed thereafter haha.

But in a piece of work, you can’t do that.

An example from Commercial Type’s License:

You agree not to create, assist in and/or cause the creation of modifications or additions to the Fonts or Font Software, including, but not limited to, creating additional weights; creating additional or deleting existing characters; modifying existing characters; modifying font spacing and kerning; or converting fonts to an alternate digital format, modify, adapt, translate, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble, alter, or otherwise attempt to discover the source code of the Font Software without first obtaining written permission from Commercial Type.

Can I re-sell a typeface / typeface license?

Nope. Only the owner of the typeface has the right to sell it. Licenses are non-transferrable.

Classic Typefaces and Their Anti-Aging Secrets

Anything labeled “Made in 1757” should be in a museum, right?

But typeface designs have defied expectations. A typeface can be both classic and modern at the same time. It can be made in 1757 and still be in use today.

In my first job in the early 2000s, I had no idea how old some of the typefaces I was using were.

Take a look at these typefaces, indicating their birthyears:

Can you identify these classic typefaces?

TYPE Birthyears Alphabetype-01.jpg

Here are the answers:

TYPE Birthyears Alphabetype-02.jpg

We see these age-defying typefaces everyday—in books, magazines, newspapers. Some are centuries-old but still very active, still being tweaked and refined for modern-day use.

As design and print technology evolved, typefaces maintained both their appearance and their appeal as they evolved from actual metal pieces to pixels and codes in software.

That’s one of the most beautiful things about typography. It reflects the culture of the day, and as it evolves it stays deeply rooted in its—well, roots.

Giambattista Bodoni’s typeface, its very first version skillfully carved in metal in the late 1700s, is still in use in year 2019.

Designer influence type relevance

In the graphic design world, type designers are truly immortalised, and their work continues to be useful and relevant. Bodoni probably had no idea that centuries later, every graphic designer would know his name.

The secret is not in the type itself but in design culture. The way designers use type and reinvent design. How a typeface is used influences how it is perceived. For example, Comic sans has been terribly misused. It was intended for kiddie graphics but has been used in office documents and powerpoint presentations, and has become one of the most scorned typefaces of all time. 

On the other hand, Bodoni has been used by luxury magazines and premium brands, which has honored the design and purpose of the typeface, and allowed it to remain relevant throughout time.

Typefaces have the potential to be timeless, by being useful, and being well-used by designers of every generation.

 

a

1*mzoBiJ9wnRoYHXpAGfO0iA.jpeg

“I hate the two-storey “a” said my seatmate at the signage company where I worked as a designer.

He was upset that a two-storey lowercase “a” created complications as part of internally-lit dimensional signage. At a not-so-big size, the shape of the “a” made it difficult to install lighting inside it. He preferred typefaces with the single-storey “a”.

But I love the two-storey “a”. So much so that I even wrote a short story about it.

It’s one of the best-looking letters in the alphabet. Even if you doodle it casually, you can still get it to look pretty cool.

It’s just classy, and classic.

Now look at the one-story “a”. Looks simplistic and a bit boring against its more classical-rooted counterpart.

The two-storey “a” evolved from Roman letters, which started out as a uni-case alphabet (or all-uppercase, as we would recognize them today). The uncial scripts, which was the popular way of writing sometime between the 4th to 8th century AD, were evolving into a mix of letters we recognize today as a mix of lowercase and uppercase, and the “a”, by this time was evolving into half uppercase and half lowercase. Of course during that time it was just a normal “a”.

uncial letters (the “a” is like a hybrid uppercase and lowercase)

Unless one is a letter-obsessed type geek, one would hardly distinguish the two a’s, when reading anything from books to blogs, or signs, whether the a is uppercase or lowercase. As is the case in many functional designs, when you don’t notice anything — when nothing sticks out — that’s when you know it was done right.

And the double story a, despite its more classical appearance, is not confined to old-fashioned serif fonts. Even modern fonts use it. For example, Helvetica from the 50s uses a double-storey “a,” and the little teardrop of negative space has become an iconic shape.

Type geek trivia:

In serif fonts such as Georgia, Times New Roman, and Baskerville, the Regular version appears in double-story a. While the italics are in single storey a.

(That’s how you distinguish fake italics from real italics. Fake italics is a computerized slant applied on letters. Real italics were drawn that way by the type designer, not altered by the computer)

And check out the title of this piece (which I simply called “a”) — The title and subtitle have different a’s. Because the subtitle is the italic version.

Strangely, the double-storey a looks great in typography, but a little odd when handwritten:

Thankfully, both the single-storey “a” and the double-storey “a” have stood the test of time. They make the typographic world more interesting.

And I’m grateful for the two and a half years I spent as part of a signage agency where I dealt with type in large scale, learned how to use geometry as a language, and had interesting conversations about which typefaces perform best in the world of 3D. I got to daydream about type and call it work.